What if becoming information literate were an adventure?
Keywords:adventure, danger, interest, information literacy, pedagogy
What if becoming information literate were an adventure? This question was posed in a keynote for the Creating Knowledge Conference 2021. It was answered in a thought piece by examining adventure-based ways to prepare students to be information literate adults through the principles and mechanisms that people find arousing and pleasurable and that are not classically a part of university pedagogy. How might these mechanisms be used to engage students more in the IL learning process and to encourage them to pursue being an information literate person as a lifelong endeavor? Adventure is presented as an experience that is situated, soft or hard, emotionally charged, challenging and rewarding. The risk aspect of adventure, often linked to danger, is also examined. Some of the dangers that exist in the management of information are explored (e.g., traps in sharing practices, seductive novelty and bypassing reason) as well as the personal costs of not managing information literacy well. How we nevertheless find danger alluring is explained in terms of arousal, as well as how we navigate zones of danger and delight with the help of protective frames. In order to arouse and sustain student engagement in becoming information literate adults, the value of interest is also introduced with the four-phase model of interest development. Suggestions for where to get started in translating the mechanisms of adventure, danger and interest into theoretically motivated and enjoyable teaching in order to support student growth as lifelong information literate adults are woven into the text for reflection.
Alvestad, T. M., & Johansen, S. M. (2020). An investigation of courage, emotion and well-being in relation to adventurous activities [Master’s thesis]. Munin open research archive. https://hdl.handle.net/10037/21131
Apter, M. J. (Ed.) (2001). Motivational styles in everyday life: A guide to reversal theory. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10427-000
Apter, M. J. (2007). Danger: Our quest for excitement. Oneworld Publications Limited.
Bell, M. (2017). The romance of risk: Adventure’s incorporation in risk society. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 17(4), 280-293. https://doi.org/10.1080/14729679.2016.1263802
Bopp, M. (2006). Didactic analysis of digital games and game-based learning. In M. Pivec (Ed), Affective and emotional aspects of human-computer interaction: Game-based and innovative learning approaches (Vol. 1) (pp. 8-36). IOS Press.
Bott, E. (2015). ‘You can never cross the same river twice’: Climbers’ embodied quests for ‘original adventure’ in southern Thailand. Tourist Studies, 15(1), 101-116. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468797614550959
Boudreau, P., Mackenzie, S. H., & Hodge, K. (2020). Flow states in adventure recreation: A systematic review and thematic synthesis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 46, 101611. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.101611
Breivik, G. (2007). The quest for excitement and the safe society. In M. J. McNamee (ed) Philosophy, risk and adventure sports (pp. 10-24). London: Routledge.
Buckley, R. (2012). Rush as a key motivation in skilled adventure tourism: Resolving the risk recreation paradox. Tourism Management, 33(4), 961-970. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.10.002
Buckley, R. C. (2015). Adventure thrills are addictive. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1915. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01915
CILIP (2018). CILIP definition of information literacy 2018. https://infolit.org.uk/ILdefinitionCILIP2018.pdf
Dahl, T. I. (2016, October 19-21). The evolution of adventure at the International Adventure Conference: Where have we been and where are we headed? 5th Annual International Adventure Conference, Tralee, Ireland.
Dahl, T. I., & Nierenberg, E. (2021). Here’s the TRIQ: The Tromsø Interest Questionnaire based on the four-phase model of interest development. Frontiers in Education, 6(716543). https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2021.716543
Deslauriers, L., McCarty, L. S., Miller, K., Callaghan, K., & Kestin, G. (2019). Measuring actual learning versus feeling of learning in response to being actively engaged in the classroom. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(39), 19251-19257. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821936116
Dyson, F. (1979). Disturbing the universe. Basic Books Inc.
Eisenberg, M. B. (2008). Information literacy: Essential skills for the information age. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 28(2), 39. https://doi.org/10.14429/djlit.28.2.166
Ekeland, C. B., & Dahl, T. I. (2016). Hunting the light in the high Arctic: Interest development among English tourists aboard the coastal steamer Hurtigruten. Tourism Culture & Communication, 16(1-2), 33-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830416X14655571061719
Fazio, L. (2020). Pausing to consider why a headline is true or false can help reduce the sharing of false news. The Harvard Kennedy School Misinformation Review, 1(2). https://doi.org/10.37016/mr-2020-009
Garner, R., Gillingham, M. G., & White, C. S. (1989). Effects of 'seductive details' on macroprocessing and microprocessing in adults and children. Cognition and Instruction, 6(1), 41-57. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3233462
Gilchrist, P., & Wheaton, B. (2016). Lifestyle and adventure sports among youth. In K. Green and A. Smith (Eds.), Routledge handbook of youth sport (pp. 186-200). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203795002
Goldstein, D. S. (1987). Stress-induced activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Bailliere’s Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1(2), 253-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-351X(87)80063-0
Green, K., Thurston, M., & Vaage, O. (2015). Isn’t it good, Norwegian wood? Lifestyle and adventure sports participation among Norwegian youth. Leisure Studies, 34(5), 529-546. https://doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2014.938771
Head, A. J., Van Hoeck, M., Eschler, J., & Fullerton, S. (2013). What information competencies matter in today’s workplace?. Library and Information Research, 37(114), 74-104. https://doi.org/10.29173/lirg557
Hernes, G. (2020). Om den kognitive samfunnspakten – vil universitetene overleve det 21. århundre? In Carl Frängsmyr (Ed.), Frihet, kollegialitet, studentinflytande [Freedom, collegiality and student influence] (pp. 23-49). Uppsala University.
Hetland, A., Vittersø, J., Wie, S. O. B., Kjelstrup, E., Mittner, M., & Dahl, T. I. (2018). Skiing and thinking about it: Moment-to-moment and retrospective analysis of emotions in an extreme sport. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(971). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00971
Hidi, S., & Baird, W. (1986). Interestingness: A neglected variable in discourse processing. Cognitive Science, 10(2), 179-194. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog1002_3
Hidi, S., & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 111-127. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4102_4
Hill, B. J. (1995). A guide to adventure travel. Parks & Recreation (Arlington), 30(9), 56-65.
Hopkins, D., & Putnam, R. (2013). Personal growth through adventure. Routledge.
Houge Mackenzie, S., & Brymer, E. (2020). Conceptualizing adventurous nature sport: A positive psychology perspective. Annals of Leisure Research, 23(1), 79-91.
Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2012). A (mis) guided adventure tourism experience: An autoethnographic analysis of mountaineering in Bolivia. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 17(2), 125-144. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2012.729901
Houge Mackenzie, S. H., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2011). Expanding the flow model in adventure activities: A reversal theory perspective. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(4), 519-544. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2011.11950248
Houge Mackenzie, S., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2013). The multiphasic and dynamic nature of flow in adventure experiences. Journal of Leisure Research, 45(2), 214-232. 10.18666/jlr-2013-v45-i2-3012
Ilett, D. (2019). First-generation students' information literacy in everyday contexts. Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2). https://doi.org/10.11645/13.2.2675
Lee, C. J., & Andrade, E. B. (2015). Fear, excitement, and financial risk-taking. Cognition and Emotion, 29(1), 178-187. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2014.898611
Lafreniere, K. D., Ledgerwood, D. M., & Murgatroyd, S. J. (2001). Psychopathology, therapy and counseling. In M. Apter (ed), Motivational styles in everyday life: A guide to reversal theory (pp. 263-285). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10427-014
Lehman, S., Schraw, G., McCrudden, M. T., & Hartley, K. (2007). Processing and recall of seductive details in scientific text. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32(4), 569-587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2006.07.002
McAvoy, L., Schatz, E. C., Stutz, M. E., Schleien, S. J., & Lais, G. (1989). Integrated wilderness adventure: Effects on personal and lifestyle traits of persons with and without disabilities. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 23(3), 50-64. https://js.sagamorepub.com/trj/article/view/4463
Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). The concept of flow. In M. Csikszentmihalyi (Ed.), Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 239-263). Dordrecht: Springer
Nierenberg, E., Låg, T., & Dahl, T. I. (2021). Knowing and doing: The development of information literacy measures to assess knowledge and practice. Journal of Information Literacy, 15(2), 78-123. https://doi.org/10.11645/15.2.2795
O'Keefe, P. A., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2014). The role of interest in optimizing performance and self-regulation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 53, 70-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2014.02.004
Oatley, K., Keltner, D., & Jenkins, J.M. (2019). Understanding emotions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Paivio, A. (2007). Mind and its evolution: A dual coding theoretical approach. Psychology Press.
Pennycook, G., Cannon, T. D., & Rand, D. G. (2018). Prior exposure increases perceived accuracy of fake news. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 147(12), 1865-1880. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000465
Pérez-Rosas, V., Kleinberg, B., Lefevre, A., & Mihalcea, R. (2018, August). Automatic Detection of Fake News. In Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (pp. 3391-3401). https://aclanthology.org/C18-1287
Pomfret, G. (2006). Mountaineering adventure tourists: a conceptual framework for research. Tourism Management, 27(1), 113-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2004.08.003
Próchniak, P. (2020). Coping with stress and pain in hard and soft adventure mountain athletes. Roczniki Psychologiczne, 23(2), 153-172.
Rantala, O., Hallikainen, V., Ilola, H., & Tuulentie, S. (2018). The softening of adventure tourism. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 18(4), 343-361. https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2018.1522725
Rickly, J. M., & Vidon, E. S. (2017). Contesting authentic practice and ethical authority in adventure tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(10), 1418-1433. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1284856
Rotgans, J. I. (2015). Validation study of a general subject-matter interest measure: The Individual Interest Questionnaire (IIQ). Health Professions Education, 1(1), 67-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hpe.2015.11.009
Schank, R. C. (1978). Interestingness: Controlling inferences. Yale University, New Haven , Connecticut Department of Computer Science. ADA062840.pdf (dtic.mil)
Scherer, K.R. (2005). What are emotions? And how can they be measured? Social Science Information, 44(4), 695-729. https://doi.org/10.1177/0539018405058216
Silvia, P. J. (2006). Exploring the psychology of interest. Oxford University Press.
Silvia, P. J. (2008). Interest—The curious emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(1), 57-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00548.x
Swarbrooke, J., Beard, C., Leckie, S., & Pomfret, G. (2003). Adventure tourism: The new frontier. Routledge.
Tamilchelvi, P. N., & Senthilnathan, S. (2013). Information literacy for lifelong learning. Conflux Journal of Education, 1(2), 27-30.
Thorsteinsen, K., & Vittersø, J. (2018). Striving for wellbeing: The different roles of hedonia and eudaimonia in goal pursuit and goal achievement. International Journal of Wellbeing, 8(2). DOI: https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v8i2.733
Towhidnejad, M., Kestler, C., Jafer, S., & Nicholas, V. (2014, October 22-25). Introducing computational thinking through stealth teaching. In 2014 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE) Proceedings (pp. 1-7). IEEE
Vittersø, J. (2016). The most important idea in the world: An introduction. In J. Vittersø (ed.) Handbook of eudaimonic well-being. International handbooks of quality-of-life (1-24). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42445-3_1
Vosoughi, S., Roy, D., & Aral, S. (2018). The spread of true and false news online. Science, 359(6380), 1146-1151. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aap9559
Walton, G. (2017). Information literacy is a subversive activity: developing a research-based theory of information discernment. Journal of Information Literacy, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.11645/11.1.2188
Zhou, X., & Zafarani, R. (2021). A survey of fake news: Fundamental theories, detection methods, and opportunities. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 53(5), 1-40. https://doi.org/10.1145/3395046
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Tove I. Dahl
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.